Maastricht Aging Study

on the determinants of adult cognitive development

Recent findings

Obesity

Positive affect

Cardiovascular disease

MAAS PhD theses

Obesity and cognitive decline in adults: effect of methodological choices and confounding by age in a longitudinal study

Deckers et al. (in press, 2017) J Nutrition Health and Aging

 

Background and Objectives: Obesity has been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia, but recent findings are contradictory, possibly due to methodological differences. The present study tries to clarify these inconsistencies by following the cognitive trajectories of individuals with obesity over 12 years and studying the effect of obesity status (obesity at baseline versus incident obesity at follow-up), chronicity, definition, potential confounding (e.g. age, cardiovascular factors), and non-linear associations.

Design: Longitudinal study with 12 years follow-up.

Setting: Community based.

Participants: 1,807 cognitively healthy individuals (aged 24-83) from the Maastricht Aging Study (1992-2004).

Measurements: Memory, executive function and processing speed were assessed at baseline and at 6- and 12-year follow-up. Obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 or waist circumference (WC) of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women.

Results: At baseline, 545 persons were obese (BMI: 329 (18%); WC: 494 (27%); both: 278 (15%). They showed faster decline in memory, executive function, and processing speed. Chronic obese showed less widespread impairment than those who regained normal weight. Associations across cognitive domains were weaker for obesity defined by BMI than for WC. At follow-up, 190 developed obesity, and they performed worse on executive function at baseline, but showed less decline compared with participants with normal weight. Yet, age-stratification and post-hoc analyses showed that most of these associations were confounded by age.

Conclusions: This study shows that the association between obesity and cognitive decline was confounded by the effect of age on rate of decline. Future studies should take this into account.

Positive affect and cognitive decline: a 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study

Berk et al. (2016) Intrnational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

 

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, positive affect (PA) has been associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning. This study examined whether positive affect (PA) is associated with change in cognitive function over 12 years in an adult population sample.

METHODS: Participants (n = 258), aged 40 to 82 years, were drawn from a subsample of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) and assessed at baseline, 6 years and 12 years. PA was measured at baseline with a Dutch translation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). PA scores and associations with cognitive decline were tested in random-effects models.

RESULTS: Controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms, there was no significant association with PA scores and decline in memory (χ2  = 1.52; df = 2; P = 0.47), executive functions (χ2  = 0.99; df = 2; P = 0.61), and information processing speed (χ2  = 0.52; df = 2; P = 0.77) at 6- and 12-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: PA did not predict cognitive change over time. These findings question the extent of protective effects of PA on cognitive aging in adulthood, and are discussed in terms of age range and types of measures used for PA and cognition.

Cognitive changes in prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease: a 12-year follow-up in the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS).  Retirement and cognitive development in the Netherlands: Are the retired really inactive?

Schievink et al. (2017; in press) European Heart Journal, http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx365

 

AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been suggested to accelerate cognitive decline and to be a risk factor for dementia, but still little is known about the cognitive course after a first cardiovascular event. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the cognitive trajectories in both prevalent and incident CVD over a 12-year time period in the general population.

 

METHODS AND RESULTS: Cognitively healthy participants (age 24-82 years, n = 1823) of a prospective cohort study were serially assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 years. Verbal memory, executive function, and information processing speed were analysed in adults with prevalent, incident, and no CVD. Random effects models were used to test the association between CVD and change in cognitive function over time. At baseline, participants with prevalent CVD showed more decline in memory and information processing speed than healthy controls. Participants with incident CVD also showed more decline in these cognitive domains, but this was only significant in the follow-up period from 6 to 12 years. Associations were more pronounced in participants aged younger than 65 years at baseline, and in sub-analyses with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction as the most prevalent CVD conditions.

 

CONCLUSION: Prevalent and incident CVD predict cognitive decline in middle-aged individuals. Findings for incident CVD suggest that the onset of decline is linked in time with the vascular event itself. Timely CVD management may delay the onset of decline.

MAAS has generated (material for)  41 PhD theses since 1993:

 

Cees Commissaris (1993). Voorlichting over geheugenproblemen en dementie.

 

Martin van Boxtel (1997). Physical health, vascular risk factors, and age-related cognitive decline.

 

Jeanette Dijkstra (1997). An operation under general anaesthesia and cognitive ageing.

 

Martin Klein (1997). Cognitive aging, attention and mild traumatic brain injury.

 

Rudolf Ponds (1998). Forgetfulness and cognitive aging; prevalence, characteristics, and determinants.

 

Eef Hogervorst (1998). Age-related cognitive decline and cognition enhancers.

Charlotte Teunissen (2001). Towards an in vitro diagnosis for neurodegeneration.

 

Sven Stapert (2002). The impact of a single mild traumatic brain injury on neurocognitive performance.

 

Danielle Tisserand (2003). Structural and functional changes underlying cognitive aging. Evidence from neuroimaging studies.

 

Renate de Goot (2003). Fatty acids, pregnancy, and cognition.

 

Susanne Valentijn (2004). Successful cognitive aging: Memory, determinants, and interventions.

 

Susan Van Hooren (2004). Successful cognitive aging: Executive functioning, determinants, and interventions.

 

Coen van Gool 2005). The course of chronic disease, depression, and health behavior in longitudinal perspective: Findings concerning the epidemiology of aging.

 

Wim van der Elst (2006). The neuropsychometrics of aging: normative studies in the Maastricht Aging Study.

 

Willemien Meijer (2006). Cognitive aging: effects of education and task demands.

 

Karin Slegers (2006). Successful Cognitive Aging: The use of computers and the Internet to support autonomy in later life.

 

Martine Mol (2007). Forgetfulness in healthy older adults: Determinants and interventions.

 

Inez Ramakers (2008). Prodromal Alzheimer's disease in subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Predictive and diagnostic aspects.

 

Lia Baars (2009). Epidemiological studies into prodromes and risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia.

 

Stephanie Moresi (2009). Preparing for action; a behavioral and pupillometric study.

 

Sebastian Köhler (2009). Psychopathology and Ageing: Towards a better understanding of psychosis and depression in later life

 

Dymphie In de Braek (2009). Attention dysfunction and ADHD in adults: determinants and interventions

 

Saartje Burgmans (2010). Linking Cognitive and Cerebral Aging: evidence from structural and functional MRI.

 

Floortje Smeets (2010). Cognitive Aging and Functional Compensation: Evidence from Brain Imaging Studies.

 

Esther Hoogenhout (2010). Perceived cognitive problems in Young-old adults: contextual factors, assessment and intervention.

 

Ariane Bour (2010). Cognition and depression after stroke; course and Interaction.

 

Mariska den Hartog (2002). Cognitive functions in depression: patterns and determinants.

 

Olga Schiepers (2011). Nutritional and genetic determinants of cognitive ageing: A neuroepidemiological approach.

 

Margriet van der Werff (2011). Risk for Psychosis: a Life Span Perspective.

 

Heidi Jacobs (2011). Parietal matters in early Alzheimer's Disease: evidence from structural and functional MRI.

 

Gonnie Klabbers (2012). Socioeconomic inequalities in health: Exploring new psychosocial pathways in middle-aged and older people

 

Sil Aarts (2012). Multimorbidity in general practice: Adverse health effects and innovative research strategies.

 

Peggy Spauwen (2015). Cognition and Type 2 Diabetes. The interplay of risk factors.

 

Anouk Linssen (2015). Considerations in designing an adult hearing screening programme.

 

Kay Deckers (2017). The role of lifestyle factors in primary prevention of dementia; an epidemiological perspective.

 

Syenna Schievink (expected 2018). Cognition and Affect after Stroke

 

Lotte Berk (expected 2018). Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) in aging individuals*.

 

Inge Verheggen (expected 2019). Blood-brain barrier function: The key to

successful cognitive aging?*

 

Bernice Gulpers (expected 2019). Anxiety disorders in the elderly*.

 

Linda Pagen (expected 2021). The locus coeruleus hits the bulls eye: stress-vulnerability as a predictor for cognitive decline*.

 

Hyun Young Park (expected 2022). Life style factors in cognitive decline and dementia*.

 

*Provisional title

2017

 

Schievink, S. H. J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Deckers, K., van Oostenbrugge, R. J., Verhey, F. R. J., & Köhler, S. (2017; in press). Cognitive changes in prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease: a 12-year follow-up in the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS). European Heart Journal. http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx365

 

Schiepers, O. J. G., Köhler, S., Deckers, K., Irving, K., O'Donnell, C. A., van den Akker, M., et al. (2017; in press). Lifestyle for Brain Health (LIBRA): a new model for dementia prevention. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1–9. http://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4700

 

Deckers, K., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Verhey, F. R. J., & Köhler, S. (in press). Obesity and cognitive decline in adults: Effects of methodological choices and confounding by age in a longitudinal study. Journal of Nutrition Health & Aging, 21(5):546-553. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0757-3.

 

2016

 

Berk, L., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Koehler, S., & J., v. O. (2016 [Epub ahead of print]). Positive Affect and Cognitive Decline: a 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.

 

2015

 

Roantree, M., O' Donoghue, J., O' Kelly, N., Pierce, M., Irving, K., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Kohler, S. (2015; Epub ahead of print). Mapping longitudinal studies to risk factors in an ontology for dementia. Health Informatics Journal.

 

De Grip, A., Dupuy, A., Jolles, J., & van Boxtel, M. (2015). Retirement and cognitive development in the Netherlands: Are the retired really inactive? Economics and Human Biology, 19, 157-169.

 

Roantree, M., J, O' Donoghue, N, O' Kelly, Pierce, M., Irving, K., Van Boxtel, M., & Kohler, S. (2015; Epub ahead of print). Mapping longitudinal studies to risk factors in an ontology for dementia. Health Informatics Journal. doi: 10.1177/1460458214564092

 

2014

 

Köhler, S., Baars, M. A. E., Spauwen, P., Schievink, S., Verhey, F. R. J., & van Boxtel, M. J. P. (2014). Temporal evolution of cognitive changes in incident hypertension: prospective cohort study across the adult age span. Hypertension, 63(2), 245–251.

 

Vos, R., Aarts, S., van Mulligen, E., Metsemakers, J., van Boxtel, M. P., Verhey, F., & van den Akker, M. (2014). Finding potentially new multimorbidity patterns of psychiatric and somatic diseases: exploring the use of literature-based discovery in primary care research. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA, 21(1):139-45.

 

Linssen, A. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Joore, M. A., & Anteunis, L. J. C. (2014). Predictors of Hearing Acuity: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69(6):759-65.

 

2013

 

Van der Elst, W., Molenberghs, G., van Boxtel, M., & Jolles, J. (2013). Establishing normative data for repeated cognitive assessment: a comparison of different statistical methods. Behavior Research Methods, 45(4):1073-86.

 

Van der Elst, W., Ouwehand, C., van Rijn, P., van Boxtel, M., & Jolles, J. (2013). The shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-based psychometric analyses and normative data. Assessment, 20(1): 48-59.

 

Spauwen, P. J. J., Köhler, S., Verhey, F. R. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2013). Effects of type 2 diabetes on 12-year cognitive change: Results from the Maastricht Aging Study. Diabetes Care, 36(6):1554-61.

 

Jacobs, H., van Boxtel, M., Gronenschild, E., Uylings, H. B. M., & Jolles, J. (2013). Decreased gray matter diffusivity: A potential early Alzheimer's disease biomarker? Alzheimer's & Dementia, 9(1), 93–97.

 

 

2012

 

Aarts, S., van den Akker, M., Bosma, H., Tan, F. E. S., Verhey, F. R., Metsemakers, J. F., et al. (2012). The effect of multimorbidity on health related functioning: temorary or persistent? Results from a longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 73(3), 211-217.

 

Van Gerven, P. W., Van Boxtel, M. P., Ausems, E. E., Bekers, O., & Jolles, J. (2012). Do apolipoprotein E genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Neuropsychology, 26(4), 459-472.

 

Hoeymans, N., Wong, A., van Gool, C. H., Deeg, D. J., Nusselder, W. J., de Klerk, M. M., et al. (2012). The Disabling Effect of Diseases: A Study on Trends in Diseases, Activity Limitations, and Their Interrelationships. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1):163-70.

 

Burgmans, S., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2012). Het krimpende brein: normale veroudering of een gevolg van selectiebias in het onderzoek? [The shrinking brain: result of normal aging or of selection bias in research?]. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 43, 18-24.

 

Slegers, K., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Jolles, J. (2012). Computer use in the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS): Determinants and relationship with cognitive change. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(1), 1-10.

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Jolles, J. (2012). Occupational activity and cognitive aging: a case-control study based on the Maastricht Aging Study. Experimental Aging Research, 38(3), 315-329.

 

2011

 

Aarts, S., van den Akker, M., Tan, F., Verhey, F., Metsemakers, J., & van Boxtel, M. (2011). De invloed van multimorbiditeit op het cognitief functioneren. Huisarts en Wetenschap, 54(3), 128-132.

 

Aarts, S., van den Akker, M., Tan, F. E., Verhey, F. R., Metsemakers, J. F., & van Boxtel, M. P. (2011). Influence of multimorbidity on cognition in a normal aging population: a 12-year follow-up in the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(10), 1046-1053.

 

Burgmans, S., Gronenschild, E. H. B. M., Fandakova, Y., Shing, Y. L., van Boxtel, M. P., Vuurman, E. F. P. M., et al. (2011). Age differences in speed of processing are partially mediated by differences in axonal integrity. Neuroimage, 55(3), 1287-1297.

 

Burgmans, S., van Boxtel, M. P., van den Berg, K. E., Gronenschild, E. H., Jacobs, H. I., Jolles, J., et al. (2011). The posterior parahippocampal gyrus is preferentially affected in age-related memory decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(9), 1572-1578.

 

Gijsen, C. P., Dijkstra, J. B., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2011). Pain is associated with decreased performance on attentional tasks in a population-based sample. Pain, 152(1), 188-193.

 

Hoeymans, N., Wong, A., van Gool, C. H., Deeg, D. J., Nusselder, W. J., de Klerk, M. M., et al. (2011). The disabling effect of diseases: A study on trends in diseases, activity limitations, and their interrelationships. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 163-170.

 

In de Braek, D. M., Hurks, P. P., van Boxtel, M. P., Dijkstra, J. B., & Jolles, J. (2011). The identification of attention complaints in the general population and their effect on quality of life. Journal of Attentional Disorders, 15(1), 46-55.

 

Jacobs, H. I., Van Boxtel, M. P., Uylings, H. B., Gronenschild, E. H., Verhey, F. R., & Jolles, J. (2011). Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia. Brain and Cognition, 75(2), 154-163.

 

Jacobs, H. I., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van der Elst, W., Burgmans, S., Smeets, F., Gronenschild, E. H. B. M., et al. (2011). Increasing the diagnostic accuracy of medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 25(3), 477-490.

 

Köhler, S., van Boxtel, M., Jolles, J., & Verhey, F. (2011). Depressive Symptoms and Risk for Dementia: A 9-Year Follow-Up of the Maastricht Aging Study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(10), 902-905.

 

Schiepers, O. J. G., van Boxtel, M. P. J., de Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Bekers, O., Kok, F. J., et al. (2011). Genetic variation in folate metabolism is not associated with cognitive functioning or mood in healthy older adults. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 35(7), 1682-1688.

 

Scholtissen-In de Braek, D. M. J. M., Hurks, P. P. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Dijkstra, J. B., & Jolles, J. (2011). The identification of attention complaints in the general population and their effect on quality of life. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(1), 46-55.

 

Teunissen, C. E., Veerhuis, R., de Vente, J., Verhey, F. R. J., Vreeling, F., van Boxtel, M. P. J., et al. (2011). Brain-specific fatty acid-binding protein is elevated in serum of patients with dementia-related diseases. European Journal of Neurology, 18(6), 865-871.

 

van Gool, C. H., Picavet, H. S., Deeg, D. J., de Klerk, M. M., Nusselder, W. J., van Boxtel, M. P., et al. (2011). Trends in activity limitations: the Dutch older population between 1990 and 2007. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(4), 1056-1067.

 

2010

 

Burgmans, S., van Boxtel, M. P., Gronenschild, E. H., Vuurman, E. F., Hofman, P., Uylings, H. B., et al. (2010). Multiple Indicators of Age-related Differences in Cerebral White Matter and the Modifying Effects of Hypertension. Neuroimage, 49(3), 2083-2093.

 

Hill, R. D., Mansour, E., Valentijn, S. A. M., Jolles, J., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). The SF-36 as a Precursory Measure of Adaptive Functioning in Normal Aging: The Maastricht Aging Study. Ageing: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(5), 1-10.

 

Jacobs, H. I., Van Boxtel, M. P., Uylings, H. B., Gronenschild, E. H., Verhey, F. R., & Jolles, J. (2011). Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia. Brain and Cognition, 75(2), 154-163.

 

Baars, M. A., van Boxtel, M. P., & Jolles, J. (2010). Migraine does not affect cognitive decline: results from the Maastricht aging study. Headache, 50(2), 176-184.

 

Hoogenhout, E. M., van der Elst, W., de Groot, R. H., van Boxtel, M. P., & Jolles, J. (2010). The neurovegetative complaints questionnaire in the Maastricht Aging Study: Psychometric properties and normative data. Aging Ment Health, 14(5), 613-623.

 

Köhler, S., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Os, J., Thomas, A. J., O’Brien, J. T., Jolles, J., et al. (2010). Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(5), 873-879.

 

Schiepers, O. J. G., de Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

 

Smeets, F., Vuurman, E. F. P. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Burgmans, S., Gronenschild, E. H. B. M., Uylings, H. B. M., et al. (2010). Aging does not affect gray matter asymmetry. Psychology and Aging, 25(3), 587-594.

 

Van der Werf, M., van Winkel, R., van Boxtel, M., & van Os, J. (2010). Evidence that the impact of hearing impairment on psychosis risk is moderated by the level of complexity of the social environment. Schizophrenia Research, 122(1-3), 193-198.

 

2009

 

Klabbers, G., Bosma, H., van den Akker, M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Kempen, G. I. J. M., McDermott, M. R., et al. (2009). Measuring rebelliousness and conformity: Psychometric evaluation of the Social Reactivity Scale. Journal of Health Psychology, 14(6), 771-779.

 

Moresi, S., Adam, J. J., van Gerven, P. W. M., Werrij, B. G., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Jolles, J. (2009). Preparing fingers within and between hands: examining the maximal preparation benefit in older age. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 1121-1136.

 

Ramakers, I. H., Visser, P. J., Bittermann, A. J., Ponds, R. W., van Boxtel, M. P., & Verhey, F. R. (2009). Characteristics of help-seeking behaviour in subjects with subjective memory complaints at a memory clinic: a case-control study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(2), 190-196.

 

Rast, P., Zimprich, D., Van Boxtel, M., & Jolles, J. (2009). Factor structure and measurement invariance of the cognitive failures questionnaire across the adult life span. Assessment, 16(2), 145-158.

 

De Groot, R. H., van Boxtel, M. P., Schiepers, O. J., Hornstra, G., & Jolles, J. (2009). Age dependence of plasma phospholipid fatty acid levels: potential role of linoleic acid in the age-associated increase in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations. Br J Nutr, 102(7), 1058-1064.

 

Burgmans, S., van Boxtel, M. P., Vuurman, E. F., Smeets, F., Gronenschild, E. H., Uylings, H. B., et al. (2009). The prevalence of cortical gray matter atrophy may be overestimated in the healthy aging brain. Neuropsychology, 23(5), 541-550.

 

Burgmans, S., van Boxtel, M. P., Smeets, F., Vuurman, E. F., Gronenschild, E. H., Verhey, F. R., et al. (2009). Prefrontal cortex atrophy predicts dementia over a six-year period. Neurobiology of Aging, 30(9), 1413-1419.

 

Meijer, W. A., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Gerven, P., van Hooren, S., & Jolles, J. (2009). Interaction effects of education and health status on cognitive change: a 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Aging and Mental Health, 13(4), 521-529.

 

Mol, M. E., van Boxtel, M. P., Willems, D., Verhey, F. R., & Jolles, J. (2009). Subjective forgetfulness is associated with lower quality of life in middle-aged and young-old individuals: a 9-year follow-up in older participants from the Maastricht Aging Study. Aging Ment Health, 13(5), 699-705.

 

Schiepers, O. J., de Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2009). Plasma phospholipid fatty acid status and depressive symptoms: Association only present in the clinical range. J Affect Disord, 118, 209-214..

 

Baars, M. A. E., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Dijkstra, J. B., Visser, P. J., van den Akker, M., Verhey, F. R. J., et al. (2009). Predictive value of Mild Cognitive Impairment for dementia: the influence of case definition and age. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 27(2), 173-181.

 

2008

 

Moonen, H. M. R., van Boxtel, M. P. J., de Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2008). Improvement in physical functioning protects against cognitive decline: a 6-year follow-up in the Maastricht Aging Study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 1(2), 62-68.

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Breukelen, G., & Jolles, J. (2008). A large scale cross-sectional and longitudinal study into the ecological validity of neuropsychological test measures in neurologically intact people. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23(7-8), 787-800.

 

Meijer, W. A., de Groot, R. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Gerven, P. W. M., & Jolles, J. (2008). Are age differences in verbal learning related to interstimulus interval and education? Experimental Aging Research, 34(4), 323-339..

 

Van Dijk, K. R., Van Gerven, P. W., Van Boxtel, M. P., Van der Elst, W., & Jolles, J. (2008). No protective effects of education during normal cognitive aging: Results from the 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Psychol Aging, 23(1), 119-130.

 

Van der Elst, W., Van Boxtel, M. P., Van Breukelen, G. J., & Jolles, J. (2008). Is left-handedness associated with a more pronounced age-related cognitive decline? Laterality, 13(3), 234-254.

 

Ramakers, I. H., Visser, P. J., Bittermann, A. J., Ponds, R. W., van Boxtel, M. P., & Verhey, F. R. (2008). Characteristics of help-seeking behaviour in subjects with subjective memory complaints at a memory clinic: a case-control study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(2), 190-196.

 

Meijer, W. A., de Groot, R. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Gerven, P. W. M., & Jolles, J. (2008). Are age differences in verbal learning related to interstimulus interval and education? Experimental Aging Research, 34(4), 323-339.

 

De Grip, A., Bosma, H., Willems, D., & van Boxtel, M. (2008). Job-worker mismatch and cognitive decline. Oxford Economic Papers, 60, 237-253. (doi:10.1093/oep/gpm023).

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Breukelen, G., & Jolles, J. (2008). Detecting the significance of changes in performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey's Verbal Learning Test, and the Letter Digit Substitution Test: The regression-based change approach. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(1), 71-80.

 

2007

 

Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M. P., Kempen, G. I., van Eijk, J. T., & Jolles, J. (2007). To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function? BMC Public Health, 7(1), 179.

 

Meijer, W. A., van Gerven, P., de Groot, R. H., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Jolles, J. (2007). The benefit of deep processing and high educational level for verbal learning in young and middle-aged adults. Aging: Clinical and Experimental Reseach, 19(5), 372-380.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P., Baars, L., & Jolles, J. (2007). Obesity, blood pressure and cognitive function: a reply to Waldstein and Katzel. Int J Obes (Lond), 31(7), 1186.

 

Van der Werf, M., van Boxtel, M., Verhey, F., Jolles, J., Thewissen, V., & van Os, J. (2007). Mild hearing impairment and psychotic experiences in a normal aging population. Schizophrenia Research, 94(1-3), 180-186.

 

Van Gerven, P. W. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Meijer, W. A., Willems, D., & Jolles, J. (2007). On the Relative Role of Inhibition in Age-Related Working Memory Decline. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn, 14(1):95-107.

 

Van Gool, C. H., Kempen, G. I., Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M. P., Jolles, J., & van Eijk, J. T. (2007). Associations between lifestyle and depressed mood: longitudinal results from the Maastricht Aging Study. Am J Public Health, 97(5), 887-894.

 

Van der Elst, W., Van Boxtel, M. P., Van Breukelen, G. J., & Jolles, J. (2007). Assessment of information processing in working memory in applied settings: the paper and pencil memory scanning test. Psychol Med, 37(9), 1335-1344.

 

Van Hooren, S. A. H., Valentijn, S. A. M., Bosma, H., Ponds, R. W. H. M. , van Boxtel, M. P. J. , & Jolles J. (2007). Cognitive functioning in healthy older adults: a cohort study into the effects of age, sex, and education. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn,14(1):40-54.

 

2006

 

Adam, J. J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., van Gerven, P. W. M., & Jolles, J. (2006). Perceptual and Motor Factors Mediate the Bowed Serial Position Effect in Aging. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 24(3): 870-883.

 

Meijer, W. A., de Groot, R. H., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Gerven, P. W., & Jolles J. (2006).Verbal learning and aging: combined effects of irrelevant speech, interstimulus interval, and education. Journal of Gerontology B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 61(5):P285-294.

 

Mol, M. E. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Willems, D., & Jolles, J. (2006). Do subjective memory complaints predict cognitive dysfunction over time? A six-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(5):432-441.

 

Ponds, R., van Boxtel, M., & Jolles, J. (2006). De ‘Cognitive Failure Questionnaire’ als maat voor subjectief cognitief functioneren. Tijdschrift voor Neuropsychologie, 1(2), 37-45.

 

Valentijn, S. A. M., Hill, R. D., van Hooren, S. A. H., Bosma, H., Jolles, J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., et al. (2006). Memory self-efficacy predicts memory performance: results from a six-year follow-up study. Psychology and Aging, 21(1):165-172.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P., Bosma, H., Jolles, J., & Vreeling, F. W. (2006). Prevalence of primitive reflexes and the relationship with cognitive change in healthy adults: A report from the Maastricht Aging Study. Journal of Neurology, 253(7), 935-941.

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Breukelen, G., & Jolles, J. (2006). The Concept Shifting Test: Adult normative data. Psychological Assessment,18(4):424-32.

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Breukelen, G. J. P., & Jolles, J. (2006). Normative data for the Animal, Profession and Letter M Naming verbal fluency tests for Dutch speaking participants and the effects of age, education, and sex. Jounal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 80-89.

 

Van der Elst, W., Van Boxtel, M. P., van Breukelen, G. J., & Jolles, J. (2006). The Stroop color-word test: influence of age, sex, and education; and normative data for a large sample across the adult age range. Assessment, 13(1), 62-79.

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Breukelen, G. J. P., & Jolles, J. (2006). The Letter Digit Substitution Test: Normative data for 1,858 healthy participants aged 24-81 from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS): influence of Age, Education, and Sex. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(6):998-1009.

 

2005

 

Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M. P., van Breukelen, G. J., & Jolles, J. (2005). Rey's verbal learning test: normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24-81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 11(3), 290-302.

 

Van Hooren, S. A. H., Valentijn, S. A. M., Bosma, H., Ponds, R. W. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Jolles, J. (2005). Relation between health status and cognitive functioning: A 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 60(1), P57-60.

 

Van Hooren, S. A., van Boxtel, M. P., Valentijn, S. A., Bosma, H., Ponds, R. W., & Jolles, J. (2005). Influence of cognitive functioning on functional status in an older population: 3- and 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(9), 883-888.

 

Hill RD, van Boxtel MPJ, Ponds R, Houx PJ, Jolles J. Positive affect and its relationship to free recall memory performance in a sample of older Dutch adults from the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2005;20(5):429-435.

 

Valentijn, S. A., van Boxtel, M. P., van Hooren, S. A., Bosma, H., Beckers, H. J., Ponds, R. W., et al. (2005). Change in sensory functioning predicts change in cognitive functioning: results from a 6-year follow-up in the maastricht aging study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(3), 374-380.

 

2004

 

Tisserand, D. J., Van Boxtel, M. P., Pruessner, J. C., Hofman, P., Evans, A. C., & Jolles, J. (2004). A Voxel-based Morphometric Study to Determine Individual Differences in Gray Matter Density Associated with Age and Cognitive Change Over Time. Cerebral Cortex.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Menheere, P. P., Bekers, O., Hogervorst, E., & Jolles, J. (2004). Thyroid function, depressed mood, and cognitive performance in older individuals: the Maastricht Aging Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology.

 

2003

 

Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M., Ponds, R., Houx, P., Burdorf, A., & Jolles, J. (2003). Mental work demands protect against cognitive impairment: MAAS prospective cohort study. Experimental Aging Research, 29, 73-78.

 

Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (2003). Education and age-related cognitive decline: the contribution of mental workload. Educational Gerontology, 29, 165-173.

 

Jelicic, M., Bosma, H., Ponds, R. W. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (2003). Neuroticism does not affect cognitive functioning in later life. Experimental Aging Research, 29, 73-78.

 

Teunissen, C. E., Blom, A. H., Van Boxtel, M. P., Bosma, H., De Bruijn, C., Jolles, J., et al. (2003). Homocysteine: a marker for cognitive performance? A longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Nutrition in Health and Aging, 7(3), 153-159.

 

Teunissen, C. E., de Vente, J., von Bergmann, K., Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M. P. J., de Bruijn, C., et al. (2003). Serum cholesterol, precursors and metabolites and cognitive performance in an aging population. Neurobiology of Aging, 24, 147-155.

 

Teunissen, C. E., van Boxtel, M. P., Bosma, H., Jolles, J., Lutjohann, D., von Bergmann, K., et al. (2003). Serummarkers in relatie tot cognitieve functies bij ouderen: resultaten van de maastricht Aging Study (MAAS)[Serum markers in relation to cognitive functioning in an aging population: results of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS)]. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 34(1), 6-12.

 

Teunissen, C. E., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Bosma, H., Bosmans, E., Delanghe, J., De Bruijn, C., et al. (2003). Inflammation markers in relation to cognition in a healthy aging population. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 134, 142-150.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Schmitt, J. A. J., Bosma, H., & Jolles, J. (2003). The effects of habitual caffeine use on cognitive change: a longitudinal perspective. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior(75), 921-927.

 

2002

 

Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Jelicic, M., Houx, P., Metsemakers, J., et al. (2002). Engaged lifestyle and cognitive function in middle and old-aged, non-demented persons: a reciprocal association? Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 35, 575-581.

 

Jelicic, M., Bosma, H., Ponds, R. W. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (2002). Subjective sleep problems in later life as predictors of cognitive decline. Report from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 73-77.

 

Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Bosma, H., Houx, P. J., Buntinx, F., & Jolles, J. (2002). Predictors of attrition in a longitudinal cognitive aging study: The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 55(3), 216-223.

 

2001

 

Tisserand, D. J., Bosma, H., Van Boxtel, M. P., & Jolles, J. (2001). Head size and cognitive ability in nondemented older adults are related. Neurology, 56(7), 969-971.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ten Tusscher, M. P. M., Metsemakers, J. F. M., Willems, B., & Jolles, J. (2001). Visual determinants of reduced performance on the Stroop Color-Word test in normal aging individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 620-627.

 

2000

 

Bosma, H., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (2000). Pesticide exposure and risk of mild cognitive dysfunction. Lancet, 356(sept 9), 912-913.

 

Hameleers, P. A. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Hogervorst, E., Houx, P. J., Buntinx, F., Riedel, W. J., et al. (2000). Habitual caffeine consumption is associated with improved long-term memory performance and simple response speed across multiple age groups. Journal of Human Psychopharmacology, 15(8), 573-581.

 

Jelicic, M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (2000). Does migraine headache affect cognitive function in the elderly? Report from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS). Headache, 40(9), 715-719.

 

Ponds, R. W. H. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Jolles, J. (2000). Age-related changes in subjective cognitive functioning. Educational Gerontology, 26, 67-81.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., van Beijsterveldt, T., Houx, P. J., Anteunis, L. J. C., Metsemakers, J. F. M., & Jolles, J. (2000). Mild hearing impairment can reduce verbal memory performance in a healthy adult population. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 22(1), 147-154.

 

Pre 2000

 

Hogervorst, E., Boshuisen, M., Riedel, W., Willeken, C., & Jolles, J. (1999). The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cognitive function in elderly women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24(1), 43-68.

 

Stevens, F. C., Kaplan, C. D., Ponds, R. W., Diederiks, J. P., & Jolles, J. (1999). How ageing and social factors affect memory. Age and Ageing, 28(4), 379-384.

 

Adam, J. J., Paas, F. G. W. C., Teeken, J. C., van Loon, E. M., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., et al. (1998). Effects of age on performance in a finger-precuing task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 870-883.

 

Commissaris, C. J. A. M., Ponds, R. W. H. M., & Jolles, J. (1998). Subjective forgetfulness in a normal Dutch population: possibilities for health education and other interventions. Patient Education and Counseling, 34(1), 25-32.

 

Dijkstra, J., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (1998). Cognitive functioning after general anaesthesia: Results from a large cross-sectional population study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(10), 1258-1265.

 

Evers, S. M. A. A., Stevens, F. C. J., Diederiks, J. P. M., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Drop, M. J., Metsemakers, J. F. M., et al. (1998). Age-related differences in cognition: lifestyle, health status, coping and sociodemographic factors. European Journal of Public Health, 8, 133-139.

 

Jolles, J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Metsemakers, J. F. M., & Houx, P. J. (1998). The Maastricht aging study (MAAS). The longitudinal perspective of cognitive aging [De Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS): Het longitudinaal perspectief van cognitieve veroudering]. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 29(3), 120-129.

 

Ponds, R. W. H. M., Commissaris, C. J. A. M., & Jolles, J. (1998). Prevalence and covariates of subjective forgetfulness in a normal population in the Netherlands. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 45(3), 207-221.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Buntinx, F., Houx, P. J., Metsemakers, J. F. M., Knottnerus, J. A., & Jolles, J. (1998). The relation between morbidity and cognitive performance in a normal aging population. Journal of Gerontology, 53A(2), M146-M154.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Gaillard, C., Houx, P. J., Buntinx, F., de Leeuw, P. W., & Jolles, J. (1998). Is non-dipping in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure related to cognitive dysfunction? Journal of Hypertension, 16(10), 1425-1432.

 

Klein, M., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (1997). Effect of test duration on age-related differences in Stroop interference. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18(1), 77-82.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Gaillard, C., Houx, P. J., de Leeuw, P. W., & Jolles, J. (1997). Can the blood pressure predict cognitive task performance in a healthy population sample? Journal of Hypertension, 15(10), 1069-1079.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Paas, F. G. W. C., Houx, P. J., Adam, J. J., Teeken, J. C., & Jolles, J. (1997). Aerobic capacity and cognitive performance in a cross-sectional aging study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(10), 1357-1365.

 

Commissaris, C. J. A. M., Jolles, J., Verhey, F. R. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Damoiseaux, V. G. M., & Kok, G. (1996). Forgetfulness or dementia? Who is worried and why? European Journal of Public Health, 6, 297-299.

 

Jolles, J., Verhey, F. R. J., Riedel, W. J., & Houx, P. J. (1996). Cognitive impairment in elderly people: Predisposing factors and implications for experimental drug studies. Drugs and Aging, 7(6), 459-479.

 

Klein, M., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (1996). Long-term persisting cognitive sequelae of closed head injury and the effect of age. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184(8), 459-467.

 

Peeters, F. P. M. L., Ponds, R. W. H. M., & Vermeeren, M. T. G. (1996). Affectiviteit en zelfbeoordeling van depressie en angst [Affectivity and self-assessment of depression and anxiety]. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 38(3), 240-250.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Gaillard, C., van Es, P. N., Jolles, J., & de Leeuw, P. W. (1996). Repeated automatic versus ambulatory blood pressure measurement: The effects of age and sex in a normal ageing population. Journal of Hypertension, 14(1), 31-40.

 

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Langerak, K., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (1996). Self-reported physical activity, subjective health, and cognitive performance in older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 22(4), 363-379.

 

Ponds, R. W. H. M., & Jolles, J. (1996). The abridged Dutch Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA) Questionnaire: Structure and effects of age, sex, and education. Psychology and Aging, 11(2), 324-332.

 

Teeken, J. C., Adam, J. J., Paas, F. G. W. C., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (1996). Effects of age and gender on discrete and reciprocal aiming movements. Psychology and Aging, 11(2), 195-198.

 

Teeken, J. C., Paas, F. G. W., Adam, J. J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (1994). Effects of aging on movement time in discrete and reciprocal aiming tasks. Journal of Sport and Excercise Psychology, 16, S114.

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© 2018  The Maastricht Aging Study - MAAS

MAAS  is a longitudinal study into the determinants of cognitive aging. It has been ongoing  since 1991 and  a new project will start in April 2017.

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